Overview of the labour market

An international and multicultural working environment

On January 1, 2023, Luxembourg has over 660,000 inhabitants, of which approximately 313,000 are foreigners. Among these, the most numerous are the Portuguese (92,000), the French (49,000), the Italians (25,000), and the Belgians (19,000). Foreigners from non-EU countries number 67,000.

Luxembourg exhibits a continuous population growth primarily due to net immigration, with the proportion of foreigners rising to 47%.

Due to the demand for jobs not being met by the national workforce and immigrant workers, the number of jobs held by cross-border workers residing in neighboring countries (Germany, Belgium, France) has been increasing since 1985.

In the third quarter of 2023, over 480,000 employees worked in Luxembourg, including 226,000 cross-border workers. France provides the largest contingent with 50% of the workforce, followed by Belgium (25%) and Germany (25%). 47% of domestic wage employment is then occupied by cross-border workers.


A thriving economy attracting talents form all over the world

Luxembourg’s powerful economy produces a continuous flow of diverse, secure and well paid job opportunities to give your career expectations attractive and multiple long-term perspectives.

On top of being a vibrant financial centre and home to several European institutions, Luxembourg relies on highly skilled talents to fuel a data driven, circular and sustainable economy. Key business sectors also include Space Technologies, Life Sciences, Automotive, Clean Technologies, Fintech and Logistics, all highly connected to and dependent on ongoing best-in-class ICT developments. Add to this a flourishing start-up community, a booming construction industry as well as a highly developed service sector and you start to understand why Luxembourg is such an attractive location for companies and employees alike.

Due to the size of the country, Luxembourg has a long tradition of attracting talents from abroad. Luxembourg is ranked second in the world for attraction of talents and is a world leader in highly skilled employment.

Consult the directory of Luxembourg companies with details about the economic activities of some 29,000 companies.

A stable and safe environment for working and living


The Luxembourg economy has been growing steadily, continuously outperforming the EU average with an employment increase of over 50% during the past 15 years. Luxembourg also enjoys one of the highest GDP per capita in the world.

Consistently ranking among the safest places in the world, Luxembourg has a strong social cohesion, a first-rate healthcare system, attractive social benefits and a favourable tax regime for highly skilled profiles. Moreover, nearly 90% of current jobs are covered by permanent contracts.


A great work-life balance


Luxembourg is also a wonderful country for leisure and sporting activities. Scenic landscapes make hiking, cycling and enjoying the outdoors fun and a great way to unwind. Enjoy the vibrant nightlife, visit a concert at the “Philharmonie” with its internationally renowned performances. Not forgetting the various world famous bands who come and perform in concert. With the country measuring 82 km long and 57 km wide, it is easy to get anywhere in Luxembourg by car, bus, tram, train or even bike and to take a short break in the many large cities in neighbouring countries.

Luxembourg is also a great place to raise children. The country has a large network of international schools and day-care facilities. It is normal for children to learn 3 or more languages at school enabling them to develop in a truly international setting.

The labour market at a glance.

  • In January 2024, more than 515,000 people are employed in Luxembourg.
  • From 2000 to 2023, employment has increased by over 90%.
  • Approximately 75% of the country's workforce consists of immigrant workers or cross-border commuters. 
  • The share of cross-border workers has increased from 3% in 1961 to 47% in 2023; nearly one in two cross-border workers comes from France. 
  • About one in ten employees works in the banking and insurance sector.

Did you know?

According to the IMD World Talent Ranking, which covers 64 economies around the world and assesses their ability to develop, attract and retain the talent needed by their economy and businesses, Luxembourg is one of the champions and ranks third behind Switzerland and Sweden.

As for Luxembourg's neighbours, the Netherlands ranks 9th , Germany 10th , Belgium 13th and France 25th .

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